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Formosa>>Learning Materials>>The Myth of Taiwan' s geology
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The Myth of Taiwan' s geology
(From6F Earth Sciences -- Taiwan' s geology)

The geology of Taiwan is roughly composed of Igneous rock, sedimentary Rock, and metamorphic rock.

1. The definition of igneous rock in geology textbook is as follows: " igneous rocks were formed when molten magma in a volcanic  process cools and solidifies. When magma was erupted, it cooled when it met the air, and minerals with small crystalloid, such as rhyolite, andesite, and basalt were formed. If the magma remained  underground without eruption, the cooling speed would be slower, which left plenty of time to form minerals with larger crystalloid, such as granite, diorite, gabbride, and peridotite (Picture 1).

Picture 1:Formation environment for igneous rocks.Picture 1:Formation environment for igneous rocks.
Source:From this special project
Description:Various environments for the formation of igneous rocks.

2.The definition of sedimentary Rock in geology textbook is as follows : " Sedimentary rock was formed from sand, soil or debris which were carried along  by wind, river, or Glacier. deposited gradually by gravity, or a layed rock.  lithification by cementation, organic or chemical processes corn form sedimentary rocks too.

 

Picture 2:Diagram of depositionPicture 2:Diagram of deposition
Source:From this special project
Description:Diagram of deposition

3.Metamorphic Rock was formed by processes of earth's internal forces on existing rock cohich caused changes in its composition and re crystallization to form a new rock. The internal forces of the Earth include temperature, pressure, stress, and chemical components. For instance, the metamorphism turns limestone into marble (Picture 3). Generally, metamorphic rock is formed in a high temperature and high pressure environment, with the temperature higher than 150 ℃.

Picture 3:Igneous rock,sedimentary rock, and metamorphic rockPicture 3:Igneous rock,sedimentary rock, and metamorphic rock
Source:Museum
Description:From the left to the right are, Igneous rock,sedimentary rock, and metamorphic rock.

According to the Central Geological Survey, MOEA on the geology distribution in Taiwan, " Taiwan can be broadly into there major geologic provinces that includes :the central range which forms the backbone ridge of the island; the western foothills which corers the largest area; and the coastal Range in easter Taiwan  ." The descriptions of these three provinces are as follows.

1. The Central Range Geologic Province:

"The Central Mountain is the most important mountain range in Taiwan. According to the researches conducted by Department of Geosciences, NTU, this geologic province can be subdivided into the eastern and the western sub provinces which are tertiary Rock and pre-Tertiary metamorphic complex respectively."

2. The Western Foothills Geologic Province:

"According to the research by Department of Geosciences, NTU, the geologic structure of this region  is composed of detritus of Neo-tertiary and a small portion of Oligocene strata. The major rocks in this region include sandstone, shale with locally interspersed limestone and tuff lenses. this thickness is 8,000meters or more .Evidences show that the stratum in this region had been experienced violent folding and faulting."

3.The Coast Ranges Geologic Province:

"According to the research by Department of Geosciences, NTU, the rocks in this region are characterized by volcanic rock and sedimentary rock. East Rift Valley in Hualien and Taitung belongs to this region. Researchers found that, during the collision process of Eurasian Plate and Philippine Plate, the Eurasian Plat was lifted by the Philippine Plate and formed the rift."

Reviewed by:Liu, Qi Qing professor
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